Who is at risk of calcium deficiency?
Pregnancy and breastfeeding women are at risk because the nutritional demand of the infant increases calcium requirement, and may cause calcium deficiency when this is not being prevented with supplements or by increasing calcium intake in food.
5% of bone mass decreases after the 1st year of menopause. This happens because of reduced estrogen levels. This will increase calcium loss in urine and reduce its absorption.
◘ Vegan and vegetarians
Plant-based diets are structured around plants that contain low levels of calcium. Leafy greens and vegetable as beans, nuts, and seeds contain oxalic acid and phytic acid which bind to calcium and prevent its absorption.
◘ Infant and children
Infants and children experience a growth surge, so the body requirements for all the elements and minerals increase. This growth surge put infant and children under the risk of developing calcium deficiency.
◘ High coffee and tea in diet
Coffee and tea contain a tannic acid that combined with calcium forming a complex which interfere with calcium absorption.