Malignant Hypertension | Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Symptoms of malignant hypertension

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

Malignant hypertension can affect all body organs, but its main characteristic is its effect on the retina.

  • Its effect on the retina: It damages the retina’s small blood vessels, leading to their rupture and bleeding or swelling. This swelling and bleeding compress the optic nerve, which is a vital element in the vision process. This decreases visual acuity and may lead to permanent vision loss after a short time.

In addition to eye problems, malignant hypertension may show the following symptoms:

  1. Chest pain (Angina pectoris)
  2. Difficult and short breathing (Dyspnea)
  3. Severe headache and dizziness
  4. Confusion
  5. Nausea and vomiting
  6. Numbness of the face, arms, and legs
  • Malignant hypertension may damage the kidney and make it unable to filtrate blood from waste products, which means renal failure. This renal failure leads to the accumulation of toxins in the body, which is a dangerous condition.
  • Malignant hypertension may affect the brain and cause a life-threatening condition called hypertensive encephalopathy, which shows the following symptoms:
  1. Severe headache gets worse with time, nausea, and vomiting
  2. Drowsiness and confusion
  3. Altered mental status (for example, anxiety)
  4. Seizures
  5. Vision loss
  6. Coma