Sodium Deficiency (hyponatremia); Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Who is at risk of sodium deficiency?

– Low sodium intake

Low sodium intake is not considered an important cause for sodium deficiency but can be happened in case of severe food deprivation like homeless people and starvation.

– Chronic diarrhea

Diarrhea increases sodium loss in the stool and also decreases its absorption.

– Alcoholics

In chronic alcohol consumption, there is an increase in sodium execration in the urine. The downside of regular alcohol intake is causing damage in the digestive system epithelium, leading to malabsorption of many nutrients including sodium.

– Excess sweating

It usually happens in athletes, and it causes a sudden drop in sodium levels because of excess water and sodium loss, giving rise to acute sodium deficiency, which should be treated by increasing fluid intake to replace the amount of lost water and sodium-rich food to replace these electrolytes.

– Medications

Certain medications such as diuretics and laxatives may cause excessive sodium loss in the stool and urine.

– Kidney diseases

Patients with kidney diseases are at high risk of developing sodium deficiency because the kidneys are the organs that responsible for electrolyte regulation and balance in blood, including sodium.

– Hydration status

Overhydration may cause false sodium deficiency as the sodium levels are normal but diluted because of excess fluids in the blood.

– Antidiuretic hormone deficiency

The anti-diuretic hormone is responsible for water and sodium retention in the body and with its deficiency, excess water is eliminated along with sodium leading to sodium deficiency.

Sodium Deficiency