Sodium Deficiency (hyponatremia); Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Sodium deficiency symptoms

Muscles weakness

Sodium facilitates calcium influx inside muscle cells, directly affecting muscle contraction and the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. With sodium deficiency, both nerve impulses and minerals flow into the cells will be decreased, giving rise to muscle ache and spasms.

Low blood pressure

Lower levels of sodium in the blood will decrease the blood volume and decrease muscle contraction of the heart and blood vessels, which decreases heart pulse rate and dilatation of the blood vessels leading to lower blood pressure or hypotension.


Rapid loss of sodium may affect the brain by causing swelling, which is known as cerebral edema. Increasing the fluids inside the brain cells will cause swelling and rupture, which may lead to coma and eventually death.


It is an early sign of sodium deficiency but is not specific to it. Headaches ensue after an increase of fluids around the brain, which compresses the brain nerves.

Sodium Deficiency