Staging of Bladder Cancer
Staging of bladder cancer is a crucial step in diagnosis and treatment. It helps to determine the extent of the cancer, which in turn helps to determine the best treatment. The staging of bladder cancer is typically determined using the TNM Classification System.
The TNM Classification System is a system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). It uses three parameters to classify the stage of bladder cancer: the tumor size (T), the presence of lymph node involvement (N) and the presence of distant metastases (M).
- The T stage of bladder cancer is based on the size of the tumor, as well as its location within the bladder. In the T stage, tumors are classified as stages 0 (the smallest tumor size) to 4 (the largest tumor size).
- The N stage is based on whether or not cancer cells are present in the regional lymph nodes, and whether or not they have spread to nearby structures.
- The M stage is based on the presence of any distant metastases, such as metastases to the lungs or liver.
The TNM Classification System is an important tool in determining the stage of bladder cancer, as it provides insight into the extent of the cancer and helps determine the best course of treatment.