Hip replacement is a surgical operation in which the hip joint is replaced with a prosthetic one. Hip replacement surgery is also known as hip arthroplasty, and it is one of the most performed procedures in orthopedic surgeries with high success rate. In a study by Soderman P et al. to study the long-term outcomes after hip arthroplasty surgery. They founded that hip replacement surgery success rate was more than 90% after more than ten years following the procedure.
Over years, the number of replaced hip joints per year are increasing. One million arthroplasties are done every year, and the numbered were doubled in twenty years. According to centers for diseases control and prevention, there were more than 234,000 total hip arthroplasty surgery in 2004.
Hip replacement surgery means changing the whole joint in a surgery known as total hip replacement surgery, while changing only the femoral head of femur in a procedure known as hemiarthroplasty surgery.
Hip replacement surgery can relieve patient’s pain, improving his mobility, daily activity, and the patient quality of life. Hip arthroplasty surgery have good prognosis for many years following the procedure.
Indication of hip replacement surgery
The aim of this procedure is to relieve the pain from the damaged hip joint, and restoration of the joint functions and mobility especially for patient’s everyday activity. Most cases of hip arthroplasties are done due to moderate to severe cases of hip joint arthritis, after failure of all medical therapy. Other indications include:
- decrease the joint mobility for any reason that may interferer with the daily activity as walking, and climbing stairs
- severe pain that persists during rest and may prevent sleep
Osteoarthritis is one of the common causes for patients to undergo hip arthroplasty. In a study by Pivec et al., founded that in more than 90% of patients who underwent hip replacement surgery had moderate to severe osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis is not the only cause for hip arthroplasties, other indications include:
- rheumatoid arthritis
- post-traumatic arthritis
- hip fractures
- a vascular necrosis
- protrusion of the acetabulum
- malignant and benign bone tumor in the hip joint bones
Hip replacement surgery is also indicated in some conditions that could be associated with hip joint pathology such as:
- ankylosing spondylitis
- Paget’s disease
- Some congenital diseases e.g., Hip dysplasia